pygame.midi
pygame module for interacting with midi input and output.
pygame.midi.init initialize the midi module
pygame.midi.quit uninitialize the midi module
pygame.midi.get_init returns True if the midi module is currently initialized
pygame.midi.Input Input is used to get midi input from midi devices.
pygame.midi.Output Output is used to send midi to an output device
pygame.midi.get_count gets the number of devices.
pygame.midi.get_default_input_id gets default input device number
pygame.midi.get_default_output_id gets default output device number
pygame.midi.get_device_info returns information about a midi device
pygame.midi.midis2events converts midi events to pygame events
pygame.midi.time returns the current time in ms of the PortMidi timer
pygame.midi.frequency_to_midi Converts a frequency into a MIDI note. Rounds to the closest midi note.
pygame.midi.midi_to_frequency Converts a midi note to a frequency.
pygame.midi.midi_to_ansi_note Returns the Ansi Note name for a midi number.
pygame.midi.MidiException exception that pygame.midi functions and classes can raise

New in pygame 1.9.0.

The midi module can send output to midi devices and get input from midi devices. It can also list midi devices on the system.

The midi module supports real and virtual midi devices.

It uses the portmidi library. Is portable to which ever platforms portmidi supports (currently Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux).

This uses pyportmidi for now, but may use its own bindings at some point in the future. The pyportmidi bindings are included with pygame.


New in pygame 2.0.0.

These are pygame events (pygame.eventpygame module for interacting with events and queues) reserved for midi use. The MIDIIN event is used by pygame.midi.midis2events()converts midi events to pygame events when converting midi events to pygame events.

MIDIIN
MIDIOUT

pygame.midi.init()
initialize the midi module
init() -> None

Initializes the pygame.midipygame module for interacting with midi input and output. module. Must be called before using the pygame.midipygame module for interacting with midi input and output. module.

It is safe to call this more than once.

pygame.midi.quit()
uninitialize the midi module
quit() -> None

Uninitializes the pygame.midipygame module for interacting with midi input and output. module. If pygame.midi.init()initialize the midi module was called to initialize the pygame.midipygame module for interacting with midi input and output. module, then this function will be called automatically when your program exits.

It is safe to call this function more than once.

pygame.midi.get_init()
returns True if the midi module is currently initialized
get_init() -> bool

Gets the initialization state of the pygame.midipygame module for interacting with midi input and output. module.

Returns:True if the pygame.midipygame module for interacting with midi input and output. module is currently initialized.
Return type:bool

New in pygame 1.9.5.

pygame.midi.Input
Input is used to get midi input from midi devices.
Input(device_id) -> None
Input(device_id, buffer_size) -> None
pygame.midi.Input.close closes a midi stream, flushing any pending buffers.
pygame.midi.Input.poll returns True if there's data, or False if not.
pygame.midi.Input.read reads num_events midi events from the buffer.
Parameters:
  • device_id (int) -- midi device id
  • buffer_size (int) -- (optional) the number of input events to be buffered
close()
closes a midi stream, flushing any pending buffers.
close() -> None

PortMidi attempts to close open streams when the application exits.

Note

This is particularly difficult under Windows.

poll()
returns True if there's data, or False if not.
poll() -> bool

Used to indicate if any data exists.

Returns:True if there is data, False otherwise
Return type:bool
Raises:MidiException -- on error
read()
reads num_events midi events from the buffer.
read(num_events) -> midi_event_list

Reads from the input buffer and gives back midi events.

Parameters:num_events (int) -- number of input events to read
Returns:the format for midi_event_list is [[[status, data1, data2, data3], timestamp], ...]
Return type:list
pygame.midi.Output
Output is used to send midi to an output device
Output(device_id) -> None
Output(device_id, latency=0) -> None
Output(device_id, buffer_size=256) -> None
Output(device_id, latency, buffer_size) -> None
pygame.midi.Output.abort terminates outgoing messages immediately
pygame.midi.Output.close closes a midi stream, flushing any pending buffers.
pygame.midi.Output.note_off turns a midi note off (note must be on)
pygame.midi.Output.note_on turns a midi note on (note must be off)
pygame.midi.Output.set_instrument select an instrument, with a value between 0 and 127
pygame.midi.Output.pitch_bend modify the pitch of a channel.
pygame.midi.Output.write writes a list of midi data to the Output
pygame.midi.Output.write_short writes up to 3 bytes of midi data to the Output
pygame.midi.Output.write_sys_ex writes a timestamped system-exclusive midi message.

The buffer_size specifies the number of output events to be buffered waiting for output. In some cases (see below) PortMidi does not buffer output at all and merely passes data to a lower-level API, in which case buffersize is ignored.

latency is the delay in milliseconds applied to timestamps to determine when the output should actually occur. If latency is <<0, 0 is assumed.

If latency is zero, timestamps are ignored and all output is delivered immediately. If latency is greater than zero, output is delayed until the message timestamp plus the latency. In some cases, PortMidi can obtain better timing than your application by passing timestamps along to the device driver or hardware. Latency may also help you to synchronize midi data to audio data by matching midi latency to the audio buffer latency.

Note

Time is measured relative to the time source indicated by time_proc. Timestamps are absolute, not relative delays or offsets.

abort()
terminates outgoing messages immediately
abort() -> None

The caller should immediately close the output port; this call may result in transmission of a partial midi message. There is no abort for Midi input because the user can simply ignore messages in the buffer and close an input device at any time.

close()
closes a midi stream, flushing any pending buffers.
close() -> None

PortMidi attempts to close open streams when the application exits.

Note

This is particularly difficult under Windows.

note_off()
turns a midi note off (note must be on)
note_off(note, velocity=None, channel=0) -> None

Turn a note off in the output stream. The note must already be on for this to work correctly.

note_on()
turns a midi note on (note must be off)
note_on(note, velocity=None, channel=0) -> None

Turn a note on in the output stream. The note must already be off for this to work correctly.

set_instrument()
select an instrument, with a value between 0 and 127
set_instrument(instrument_id, channel=0) -> None

Select an instrument.

pitch_bend()
modify the pitch of a channel.
set_instrument(value=0, channel=0) -> None

Adjust the pitch of a channel. The value is a signed integer from -8192 to +8191. For example, 0 means "no change", +4096 is typically a semitone higher, and -8192 is 1 whole tone lower (though the musical range corresponding to the pitch bend range can also be changed in some synthesizers).

If no value is given, the pitch bend is returned to "no change".

New in pygame 1.9.4.

write()
writes a list of midi data to the Output
write(data) -> None

Writes series of MIDI information in the form of a list.

Parameters:data (list) -- data to write, the expected format is [[[status, data1=0, data2=0, ...], timestamp], ...] with the data# fields being optional
Raises:IndexError -- if more than 1024 elements in the data list

Example:

# Program change at time 20000 and 500ms later send note 65 with
# velocity 100.
write([[[0xc0, 0, 0], 20000], [[0x90, 60, 100], 20500]])

Note

  • Timestamps will be ignored if latency = 0
  • To get a note to play immediately, send MIDI info with timestamp read from function Time
  • Optional data fields: write([[[0xc0, 0, 0], 20000]]) is equivalent to write([[[0xc0], 20000]])
write_short()
writes up to 3 bytes of midi data to the Output
write_short(status) -> None
write_short(status, data1=0, data2=0) -> None

Output MIDI information of 3 bytes or less. The data fields are optional and assumed to be 0 if omitted.

Examples of status byte values:

0xc0  # program change
0x90  # note on
# etc.

Example:

# note 65 on with velocity 100
write_short(0x90, 65, 100)
write_sys_ex()
writes a timestamped system-exclusive midi message.
write_sys_ex(when, msg) -> None

Writes a timestamped system-exclusive midi message.

Parameters:
  • msg (list[int] or str) -- midi message
  • when -- timestamp in milliseconds

Example:

midi_output.write_sys_ex(0, '\xF0\x7D\x10\x11\x12\x13\xF7')

# is equivalent to

midi_output.write_sys_ex(pygame.midi.time(),
                         [0xF0, 0x7D, 0x10, 0x11, 0x12, 0x13, 0xF7])
pygame.midi.get_count()
gets the number of devices.
get_count() -> num_devices

Device ids range from 0 to get_count() - 1

pygame.midi.get_default_input_id()
gets default input device number
get_default_input_id() -> default_id

The following describes the usage details for this function and the get_default_output_id() function.

Return the default device ID or -1 if there are no devices. The result can be passed to the Input/Output class.

On a PC the user can specify a default device by setting an environment variable. To use device #1, for example:

set PM_RECOMMENDED_INPUT_DEVICE=1
or
set PM_RECOMMENDED_OUTPUT_DEVICE=1

The user should first determine the available device ID by using the supplied application "testin" or "testout".

In general, the registry is a better place for this kind of info. With USB devices that can come and go, using integers is not very reliable for device identification. Under Windows, if PM_RECOMMENDED_INPUT_DEVICE (or PM_RECOMMENDED_OUTPUT_DEVICE) is NOT found in the environment, then the default device is obtained by looking for a string in the registry under:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/SOFTWARE/PortMidi/Recommended_Input_Device
or
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/SOFTWARE/PortMidi/Recommended_Output_Device

The number of the first device with a substring that matches the string exactly is returned. For example, if the string in the registry is "USB" and device 1 is named "In USB MidiSport 1x1", then that will be the default input because it contains the string "USB".

In addition to the name, get_device_info() returns "interf", which is the interface name. The "interface" is the underlying software system or API used by PortMidi to access devices. Supported interfaces:

MMSystem   # the only Win32 interface currently supported
ALSA       # the only Linux interface currently supported
CoreMIDI   # the only Mac OS X interface currently supported
# DirectX - not implemented
# OSS     - not implemented

To specify both the interface and the device name in the registry, separate the two with a comma and a space. The string before the comma must be a substring of the "interf" string and the string after the space must be a substring of the "name" name string in order to match the device. e.g.:

MMSystem, In USB MidiSport 1x1

Note

In the current release, the default is simply the first device (the input or output device with the lowest PmDeviceID).

pygame.midi.get_default_output_id()
gets default output device number
get_default_output_id() -> default_id

See get_default_input_id() for usage details.

pygame.midi.get_device_info()
returns information about a midi device
get_device_info(an_id) -> (interf, name, input, output, opened)
get_device_info(an_id) -> None

Gets the device info for a given id.

Parameters:an_id (int) -- id of the midi device being queried
Returns:if the id is out of range None is returned, otherwise a tuple of (interf, name, input, output, opened) is returned.
  • interf: string describing the device interface (e.g. 'ALSA')
  • name: string name of the device (e.g. 'Midi Through Port-0')
  • input: 1 if the device is an input device, otherwise 0
  • output: 1 if the device is an output device, otherwise 0
  • opened: 1 if the device is opened, otherwise 0
Return type:tuple or None
pygame.midi.midis2events()
converts midi events to pygame events
midis2events(midi_events, device_id) -> [Event, ...]

Takes a sequence of midi events and returns list of pygame events.

The midi_events data is expected to be a sequence of ((status, data1, data2, data3), timestamp) midi events (all values required).

Returns:a list of pygame events of event type MIDIIN
Return type:list
pygame.midi.time()
returns the current time in ms of the PortMidi timer
time() -> time

The time is reset to 0 when the pygame.midipygame module for interacting with midi input and output. module is initialized.

pygame.midi.frequency_to_midi()
Converts a frequency into a MIDI note. Rounds to the closest midi note.
frequency_to_midi(midi_note) -> midi_note

example:

frequency_to_midi(27.5) == 21

New in pygame 1.9.5.

pygame.midi.midi_to_frequency()
Converts a midi note to a frequency.
midi_to_frequency(midi_note) -> frequency

example:

midi_to_frequency(21) == 27.5

New in pygame 1.9.5.

pygame.midi.midi_to_ansi_note()
Returns the Ansi Note name for a midi number.
midi_to_ansi_note(midi_note) -> ansi_note

example:

midi_to_ansi_note(21) == 'A0'

New in pygame 1.9.5.

exception pygame.midi.MidiException
exception that pygame.midi functions and classes can raise
MidiException(errno) -> None



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