pygame.joystick
Pygame module for interacting with joysticks, gamepads, and trackballs.
pygame.joystick.init Initialize the joystick module.
pygame.joystick.quit Uninitialize the joystick module.
pygame.joystick.get_init Returns True if the joystick module is initialized.
pygame.joystick.get_count Returns the number of joysticks.
pygame.joystick.Joystick Create a new Joystick object.

The joystick module manages the joystick devices on a computer. Joystick devices include trackballs and video-game-style gamepads, and the module allows the use of multiple buttons and "hats". Computers may manage multiple joysticks at a time.

Each instance of the Joystick class represents one gaming device plugged into the computer. If a gaming pad has multiple joysticks on it, than the joystick object can actually represent multiple joysticks on that single game device.

For a quick way to initialise the joystick module and get a list of Joystick instances use the following code:

pygame.joystick.init()
joysticks = [pygame.joystick.Joystick(x) for x in range(pygame.joystick.get_count())]

The following event types will be generated by the joysticks

JOYAXISMOTION JOYBALLMOTION JOYBUTTONDOWN JOYBUTTONUP JOYHATMOTION

And in SDL2, which supports hotplugging:

JOYDEVICEADDED JOYDEVICEREMOVED

Note that in SDL2, joysticks events use a unique "instance ID". The device index passed in the constructor to a Joystick object is not unique after devices have been added and removed. You must call Joystick.get_instance_id() to find the instance ID that was assigned to a Joystick on opening.

The event queue needs to be pumped frequently for some of the methods to work. So call one of pygame.event.get, pygame.event.wait, or pygame.event.pump regularly.

pygame.joystick.init()
Initialize the joystick module.
init() -> None

This function is called automatically by pygame.init().

It initializes the joystick module. The module must be initialized before any other functions will work.

It is safe to call this function more than once.

pygame.joystick.quit()
Uninitialize the joystick module.
quit() -> None

Uninitialize the joystick module. After you call this any existing joystick objects will no longer work.

It is safe to call this function more than once.

pygame.joystick.get_init()
Returns True if the joystick module is initialized.
get_init() -> bool

Test if the pygame.joystick.init() function has been called.

pygame.joystick.get_count()
Returns the number of joysticks.
get_count() -> count

Return the number of joystick devices on the system. The count will be 0 if there are no joysticks on the system.

When you create Joystick objects using Joystick(id), you pass an integer that must be lower than this count.

pygame.joystick.Joystick
Create a new Joystick object.
Joystick(id) -> Joystick
pygame.joystick.Joystick.init initialize the Joystick
pygame.joystick.Joystick.quit uninitialize the Joystick
pygame.joystick.Joystick.get_init check if the Joystick is initialized
pygame.joystick.Joystick.get_id get the device index (deprecated)
pygame.joystick.Joystick.get_instance_id get the joystick instance id
pygame.joystick.Joystick.get_guid get the joystick GUID
pygame.joystick.Joystick.get_power_level get the approximate power status of the device
pygame.joystick.Joystick.get_name get the Joystick system name
pygame.joystick.Joystick.get_numaxes get the number of axes on a Joystick
pygame.joystick.Joystick.get_axis get the current position of an axis
pygame.joystick.Joystick.get_numballs get the number of trackballs on a Joystick
pygame.joystick.Joystick.get_ball get the relative position of a trackball
pygame.joystick.Joystick.get_numbuttons get the number of buttons on a Joystick
pygame.joystick.Joystick.get_button get the current button state
pygame.joystick.Joystick.get_numhats get the number of hat controls on a Joystick
pygame.joystick.Joystick.get_hat get the position of a joystick hat

Create a new joystick to access a physical device. The id argument must be a value from 0 to pygame.joystick.get_count()-1.

Joysticks are initialised on creation and are shut down when deallocated. Once the device is initialized the pygame event queue will start receiving events about its input.

Changed in pygame 2.0.0: Joystick objects are now opened immediately on creation.

init()
initialize the Joystick
init() -> None

Initialize the joystick, if it has been closed. It is safe to call this even if the joystick is already initialized.

Deprecated since pygame 2.0.0: In future it will not be possible to reinitialise a closed Joystick object. Will be removed in Pygame 2.1.

quit()
uninitialize the Joystick
quit() -> None

Close a Joystick object. After this the pygame event queue will no longer receive events from the device.

It is safe to call this more than once.

get_init()
check if the Joystick is initialized
get_init() -> bool

Return True if the Joystick object is currently initialised.

get_id()
get the device index (deprecated)
get_id() -> int

Returns the original device index for this device. This is the same value that was passed to the Joystick() constructor. This method can safely be called while the Joystick is not initialized.

Deprecated since pygame 2.0.0: The original device index is not useful in SDL2. Use get_instance_id() instead. Will be removed in Pygame 2.1.

get_instance_id() → int
get the joystick instance id
get_instance_id() -> int

Availability: SDL2

Get the joystick instance ID. This matches the instance_id field that is given in joystick events.

New in pygame 2.0.0dev11.

get_guid() → str
get the joystick GUID
get_guid() -> str

Availability: SDL2

Get the GUID string. This identifies the exact hardware of the joystick device.

New in pygame 2.0.0dev11.

get_power_level() → str
get the approximate power status of the device
get_power_level() -> str

Availability: SDL2

Get a string giving the power status of the device.

One of: empty, low, medium, full, wired, max, or unknown.

New in pygame 2.0.0dev11.

get_name()
get the Joystick system name
get_name() -> string

Returns the system name for this joystick device. It is unknown what name the system will give to the Joystick, but it should be a unique name that identifies the device. This method can safely be called while the Joystick is not initialized.

get_numaxes()
get the number of axes on a Joystick
get_numaxes() -> int

Returns the number of input axes are on a Joystick. There will usually be two for the position. Controls like rudders and throttles are treated as additional axes.

The pygame.JOYAXISMOTION events will be in the range from -1.0 to 1.0. A value of 0.0 means the axis is centered. Gamepad devices will usually be -1, 0, or 1 with no values in between. Older analog joystick axes will not always use the full -1 to 1 range, and the centered value will be some area around 0. Analog joysticks usually have a bit of noise in their axis, which will generate a lot of rapid small motion events.

get_axis()
get the current position of an axis
get_axis(axis_number) -> float

Returns the current position of a joystick axis. The value will range from -1 to 1 with a value of 0 being centered. You may want to take into account some tolerance to handle jitter, and joystick drift may keep the joystick from centering at 0 or using the full range of position values.

The axis number must be an integer from zero to get_numaxes()-1.

get_numballs()
get the number of trackballs on a Joystick
get_numballs() -> int

Returns the number of trackball devices on a Joystick. These devices work similar to a mouse but they have no absolute position; they only have relative amounts of movement.

The pygame.JOYBALLMOTION event will be sent when the trackball is rolled. It will report the amount of movement on the trackball.

get_ball()
get the relative position of a trackball
get_ball(ball_number) -> x, y

Returns the relative movement of a joystick button. The value is a x, y pair holding the relative movement since the last call to get_ball.

The ball number must be an integer from zero to get_numballs()-1.

get_numbuttons()
get the number of buttons on a Joystick
get_numbuttons() -> int

Returns the number of pushable buttons on the joystick. These buttons have a boolean (on or off) state.

Buttons generate a pygame.JOYBUTTONDOWN and pygame.JOYBUTTONUP event when they are pressed and released.

get_button()
get the current button state
get_button(button) -> bool

Returns the current state of a joystick button.

get_numhats()
get the number of hat controls on a Joystick
get_numhats() -> int

Returns the number of joystick hats on a Joystick. Hat devices are like miniature digital joysticks on a joystick. Each hat has two axes of input.

The pygame.JOYHATMOTION event is generated when the hat changes position. The position attribute for the event contains a pair of values that are either -1, 0, or 1. A position of (0, 0) means the hat is centered.

get_hat()
get the position of a joystick hat
get_hat(hat_number) -> x, y

Returns the current position of a position hat. The position is given as two values representing the X and Y position for the hat. (0, 0) means centered. A value of -1 means left/down and a value of 1 means right/up: so (-1, 0) means left; (1, 0) means right; (0, 1) means up; (1, 1) means upper-right; etc.

This value is digital, i.e., each coordinate can be -1, 0 or 1 but never in-between.

The hat number must be between 0 and get_numhats()-1.

joystick module example

Example code for joystick module.

import pygame


# Define some colors.
BLACK = pygame.Color('black')
WHITE = pygame.Color('white')


# This is a simple class that will help us print to the screen.
# It has nothing to do with the joysticks, just outputting the
# information.
class TextPrint(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self.reset()
        self.font = pygame.font.Font(None, 20)

    def tprint(self, screen, textString):
        textBitmap = self.font.render(textString, True, BLACK)
        screen.blit(textBitmap, (self.x, self.y))
        self.y += self.line_height

    def reset(self):
        self.x = 10
        self.y = 10
        self.line_height = 15

    def indent(self):
        self.x += 10

    def unindent(self):
        self.x -= 10


pygame.init()

# Set the width and height of the screen (width, height).
screen = pygame.display.set_mode((500, 700))

pygame.display.set_caption("My Game")

# Loop until the user clicks the close button.
done = False

# Used to manage how fast the screen updates.
clock = pygame.time.Clock()

# Initialize the joysticks.
pygame.joystick.init()

# Get ready to print.
textPrint = TextPrint()

# -------- Main Program Loop -----------
while not done:
    #
    # EVENT PROCESSING STEP
    #
    # Possible joystick actions: JOYAXISMOTION, JOYBALLMOTION, JOYBUTTONDOWN,
    # JOYBUTTONUP, JOYHATMOTION
    for event in pygame.event.get(): # User did something.
        if event.type == pygame.QUIT: # If user clicked close.
            done = True # Flag that we are done so we exit this loop.
        elif event.type == pygame.JOYBUTTONDOWN:
            print("Joystick button pressed.")
        elif event.type == pygame.JOYBUTTONUP:
            print("Joystick button released.")

    #
    # DRAWING STEP
    #
    # First, clear the screen to white. Don't put other drawing commands
    # above this, or they will be erased with this command.
    screen.fill(WHITE)
    textPrint.reset()

    # Get count of joysticks.
    joystick_count = pygame.joystick.get_count()

    textPrint.tprint(screen, "Number of joysticks: {}".format(joystick_count))
    textPrint.indent()

    # For each joystick:
    for i in range(joystick_count):
        joystick = pygame.joystick.Joystick(i)
        joystick.init()

        try:
            jid = joystick.get_instance_id()
        except AttributeError:
            # get_instance_id() is an SDL2 method
            jid = joystick.get_id()
        textPrint.tprint(screen, "Joystick {}".format(jid))
        textPrint.indent()

        # Get the name from the OS for the controller/joystick.
        name = joystick.get_name()
        textPrint.tprint(screen, "Joystick name: {}".format(name))

        try:
            guid = joystick.get_guid()
        except AttributeError:
            # get_guid() is an SDL2 method
            pass
        else:
            textPrint.tprint(screen, "GUID: {}".format(guid))

        # Usually axis run in pairs, up/down for one, and left/right for
        # the other.
        axes = joystick.get_numaxes()
        textPrint.tprint(screen, "Number of axes: {}".format(axes))
        textPrint.indent()

        for i in range(axes):
            axis = joystick.get_axis(i)
            textPrint.tprint(screen, "Axis {} value: {:>6.3f}".format(i, axis))
        textPrint.unindent()

        buttons = joystick.get_numbuttons()
        textPrint.tprint(screen, "Number of buttons: {}".format(buttons))
        textPrint.indent()

        for i in range(buttons):
            button = joystick.get_button(i)
            textPrint.tprint(screen,
                             "Button {:>2} value: {}".format(i, button))
        textPrint.unindent()

        hats = joystick.get_numhats()
        textPrint.tprint(screen, "Number of hats: {}".format(hats))
        textPrint.indent()

        # Hat position. All or nothing for direction, not a float like
        # get_axis(). Position is a tuple of int values (x, y).
        for i in range(hats):
            hat = joystick.get_hat(i)
            textPrint.tprint(screen, "Hat {} value: {}".format(i, str(hat)))
        textPrint.unindent()

        textPrint.unindent()

    #
    # ALL CODE TO DRAW SHOULD GO ABOVE THIS COMMENT
    #

    # Go ahead and update the screen with what we've drawn.
    pygame.display.flip()

    # Limit to 20 frames per second.
    clock.tick(20)

# Close the window and quit.
# If you forget this line, the program will 'hang'
# on exit if running from IDLE.
pygame.quit()




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