pygame.math
pygame module for vector classes
pygame.math.Vector2 a 2-Dimensional Vector
pygame.math.Vector3 a 3-Dimensional Vector
pygame.math.enable_swizzling globally enables swizzling for vectors.
pygame.math.disable_swizzling globally disables swizzling for vectors.

The pygame math module currently provides Vector classes in two and three dimensions, Vector2 and Vector3 respectively.

They support the following numerical operations: vec+vec, vec-vec, vec*number, number*vec, vec/number, vec//number, vec+=vec, vec-=vec, vec*=number, vec/=number, vec//=number. All these operations will be performed elementwise. In addition vec*vec will perform a scalar-product (a.k.a. dot-product). If you want to multiply every element from vector v with every element from vector w you can use the elementwise method: v.elementwise() * w

The coordinates of a vector can be retrieved or set using attributes or subscripts:

v = pygame.Vector3()

v.x = 5
v[1] = 2 * v.x
print(v[1]) # 10

v.x == v[0]
v.y == v[1]
v.z == v[2]

Multiple coordinates can be set using slices or swizzling:

v = pygame.Vector2()
v.xy = 1, 2
v[:] = 1, 2

New in pygame 1.9.2pre.

Changed in pygame 1.9.4: Removed experimental notice.

Changed in pygame 1.9.4: Allow scalar construction like GLSL Vector2(2) == Vector2(2.0, 2.0)

Changed in pygame 1.9.4: pygame.mathpygame module for vector classes required import. More convenient pygame.Vector2 and pygame.Vector3.

pygame.math.Vector2
a 2-Dimensional Vector
Vector2() -> Vector2
Vector2(int) -> Vector2
Vector2(float) -> Vector2
Vector2(Vector2) -> Vector2
Vector2(x, y) -> Vector2
Vector2((x, y)) -> Vector2
pygame.math.Vector2.dot calculates the dot- or scalar-product with the other vector
pygame.math.Vector2.cross calculates the cross- or vector-product
pygame.math.Vector2.magnitude returns the Euclidean magnitude of the vector.
pygame.math.Vector2.magnitude_squared returns the squared magnitude of the vector.
pygame.math.Vector2.length returns the Euclidean length of the vector.
pygame.math.Vector2.length_squared returns the squared Euclidean length of the vector.
pygame.math.Vector2.normalize returns a vector with the same direction but length 1.
pygame.math.Vector2.normalize_ip normalizes the vector in place so that its length is 1.
pygame.math.Vector2.is_normalized tests if the vector is normalized i.e. has length == 1.
pygame.math.Vector2.scale_to_length scales the vector to a given length.
pygame.math.Vector2.reflect returns a vector reflected of a given normal.
pygame.math.Vector2.reflect_ip reflect the vector of a given normal in place.
pygame.math.Vector2.distance_to calculates the Euclidean distance to a given vector.
pygame.math.Vector2.distance_squared_to calculates the squared Euclidean distance to a given vector.
pygame.math.Vector2.lerp returns a linear interpolation to the given vector.
pygame.math.Vector2.slerp returns a spherical interpolation to the given vector.
pygame.math.Vector2.elementwise The next operation will be performed elementwise.
pygame.math.Vector2.rotate rotates a vector by a given angle in degrees.
pygame.math.Vector2.rotate_rad rotates a vector by a given angle in radians.
pygame.math.Vector2.rotate_ip rotates the vector by a given angle in degrees in place.
pygame.math.Vector2.rotate_ip_rad rotates the vector by a given angle in radians in place.
pygame.math.Vector2.angle_to calculates the angle to a given vector in degrees.
pygame.math.Vector2.as_polar returns a tuple with radial distance and azimuthal angle.
pygame.math.Vector2.from_polar Sets x and y from a polar coordinates tuple.
pygame.math.Vector2.update Sets the coordinates of the vector.

Some general information about the Vector2 class.

dot()
calculates the dot- or scalar-product with the other vector
dot(Vector2) -> float
cross()
calculates the cross- or vector-product
cross(Vector2) -> Vector2

calculates the third component of the cross-product.

magnitude()
returns the Euclidean magnitude of the vector.
magnitude() -> float

calculates the magnitude of the vector which follows from the theorem: vec.magnitude() == math.sqrt(vec.x**2 + vec.y**2)

magnitude_squared()
returns the squared magnitude of the vector.
magnitude_squared() -> float

calculates the magnitude of the vector which follows from the theorem: vec.magnitude_squared() == vec.x**2 + vec.y**2 This is faster than vec.magnitude() because it avoids the square root.

length()
returns the Euclidean length of the vector.
length() -> float

calculates the Euclidean length of the vector which follows from the Pythagorean theorem: vec.length() == math.sqrt(vec.x**2 + vec.y**2)

length_squared()
returns the squared Euclidean length of the vector.
length_squared() -> float

calculates the Euclidean length of the vector which follows from the Pythagorean theorem: vec.length_squared() == vec.x**2 + vec.y**2 This is faster than vec.length() because it avoids the square root.

normalize()
returns a vector with the same direction but length 1.
normalize() -> Vector2

Returns a new vector that has length == 1 and the same direction as self.

normalize_ip()
normalizes the vector in place so that its length is 1.
normalize_ip() -> None

Normalizes the vector so that it has length == 1. The direction of the vector is not changed.

is_normalized()
tests if the vector is normalized i.e. has length == 1.
is_normalized() -> Bool

Returns True if the vector has length == 1. Otherwise it returns False.

scale_to_length()
scales the vector to a given length.
scale_to_length(float) -> None

Scales the vector so that it has the given length. The direction of the vector is not changed. You can also scale to length 0. If the vector is the zero vector (i.e. has length 0 thus no direction) a ValueError is raised.

reflect()
returns a vector reflected of a given normal.
reflect(Vector2) -> Vector2

Returns a new vector that points in the direction as if self would bounce of a surface characterized by the given surface normal. The length of the new vector is the same as self's.

reflect_ip()
reflect the vector of a given normal in place.
reflect_ip(Vector2) -> None

Changes the direction of self as if it would have been reflected of a surface with the given surface normal.

distance_to()
calculates the Euclidean distance to a given vector.
distance_to(Vector2) -> float
distance_squared_to()
calculates the squared Euclidean distance to a given vector.
distance_squared_to(Vector2) -> float
lerp()
returns a linear interpolation to the given vector.
lerp(Vector2, float) -> Vector2

Returns a Vector which is a linear interpolation between self and the given Vector. The second parameter determines how far between self and other the result is going to be. It must be a value between 0 and 1 where 0 means self and 1 means other will be returned.

slerp()
returns a spherical interpolation to the given vector.
slerp(Vector2, float) -> Vector2

Calculates the spherical interpolation from self to the given Vector. The second argument - often called t - must be in the range [-1, 1]. It parametrizes where - in between the two vectors - the result should be. If a negative value is given the interpolation will not take the complement of the shortest path.

elementwise()
The next operation will be performed elementwise.
elementwise() -> VectorElementwiseProxy

Applies the following operation to each element of the vector.

rotate()
rotates a vector by a given angle in degrees.
rotate(angle) -> Vector2

Returns a vector which has the same length as self but is rotated counterclockwise by the given angle in degrees.

rotate_rad()
rotates a vector by a given angle in radians.
rotate_rad(angle) -> Vector2

Returns a vector which has the same length as self but is rotated counterclockwise by the given angle in radians.

New in pygame 2.0.

rotate_ip()
rotates the vector by a given angle in degrees in place.
rotate_ip(angle) -> None

Rotates the vector counterclockwise by the given angle in degrees. The length of the vector is not changed.

rotate_ip_rad()
rotates the vector by a given angle in radians in place.
rotate_ip_rad(angle) -> None

Rotates the vector counterclockwise by the given angle in radians. The length of the vector is not changed.

New in pygame 2.0.

angle_to()
calculates the angle to a given vector in degrees.
angle_to(Vector2) -> float

Returns the angle between self and the given vector.

as_polar()
returns a tuple with radial distance and azimuthal angle.
as_polar() -> (r, phi)

Returns a tuple (r, phi) where r is the radial distance, and phi is the azimuthal angle.

from_polar()
Sets x and y from a polar coordinates tuple.
from_polar((r, phi)) -> None

Sets x and y from a tuple (r, phi) where r is the radial distance, and phi is the azimuthal angle.

update()
Sets the coordinates of the vector.
update() -> None
update(int) -> None
update(float) -> None
update(Vector2) -> None
update(x, y) -> None
update((x, y)) -> None

Sets coordinates x and y in place.

New in pygame 1.9.5.

pygame.math.Vector3
a 3-Dimensional Vector
Vector3() -> Vector3
Vector3(int) -> Vector3
Vector3(float) -> Vector3
Vector3(Vector3) -> Vector3
Vector3(x, y, z) -> Vector3
Vector3((x, y, z)) -> Vector3
pygame.math.Vector3.dot calculates the dot- or scalar-product with the other vector
pygame.math.Vector3.cross calculates the cross- or vector-product
pygame.math.Vector3.magnitude returns the Euclidean magnitude of the vector.
pygame.math.Vector3.magnitude_squared returns the squared Euclidean magnitude of the vector.
pygame.math.Vector3.length returns the Euclidean length of the vector.
pygame.math.Vector3.length_squared returns the squared Euclidean length of the vector.
pygame.math.Vector3.normalize returns a vector with the same direction but length 1.
pygame.math.Vector3.normalize_ip normalizes the vector in place so that its length is 1.
pygame.math.Vector3.is_normalized tests if the vector is normalized i.e. has length == 1.
pygame.math.Vector3.scale_to_length scales the vector to a given length.
pygame.math.Vector3.reflect returns a vector reflected of a given normal.
pygame.math.Vector3.reflect_ip reflect the vector of a given normal in place.
pygame.math.Vector3.distance_to calculates the Euclidean distance to a given vector.
pygame.math.Vector3.distance_squared_to calculates the squared Euclidean distance to a given vector.
pygame.math.Vector3.lerp returns a linear interpolation to the given vector.
pygame.math.Vector3.slerp returns a spherical interpolation to the given vector.
pygame.math.Vector3.elementwise The next operation will be performed elementwise.
pygame.math.Vector3.rotate rotates a vector by a given angle in degrees.
pygame.math.Vector3.rotate_rad rotates a vector by a given angle in radians.
pygame.math.Vector3.rotate_ip rotates the vector by a given angle in degrees in place.
pygame.math.Vector3.rotate_ip_rad rotates the vector by a given angle in radians in place.
pygame.math.Vector3.rotate_x rotates a vector around the x-axis by the angle in degrees.
pygame.math.Vector3.rotate_x_rad rotates a vector around the x-axis by the angle in radians.
pygame.math.Vector3.rotate_x_ip rotates the vector around the x-axis by the angle in degrees in place.
pygame.math.Vector3.rotate_x_ip_rad rotates the vector around the x-axis by the angle in radians in place.
pygame.math.Vector3.rotate_y rotates a vector around the y-axis by the angle in degrees.
pygame.math.Vector3.rotate_y_rad rotates a vector around the y-axis by the angle in radians.
pygame.math.Vector3.rotate_y_ip rotates the vector around the y-axis by the angle in degrees in place.
pygame.math.Vector3.rotate_y_ip_rad rotates the vector around the y-axis by the angle in radians in place.
pygame.math.Vector3.rotate_z rotates a vector around the z-axis by the angle in degrees.
pygame.math.Vector3.rotate_z_rad rotates a vector around the z-axis by the angle in radians.
pygame.math.Vector3.rotate_z_ip rotates the vector around the z-axis by the angle in degrees in place.
pygame.math.Vector3.rotate_z_ip_rad rotates the vector around the z-axis by the angle in radians in place.
pygame.math.Vector3.angle_to calculates the angle to a given vector in degrees.
pygame.math.Vector3.as_spherical returns a tuple with radial distance, inclination and azimuthal angle.
pygame.math.Vector3.from_spherical Sets x, y and z from a spherical coordinates 3-tuple.
pygame.math.Vector3.update Sets the coordinates of the vector.

Some general information about the Vector3 class.

dot()
calculates the dot- or scalar-product with the other vector
dot(Vector3) -> float
cross()
calculates the cross- or vector-product
cross(Vector3) -> Vector3

calculates the cross-product.

magnitude()
returns the Euclidean magnitude of the vector.
magnitude() -> float

calculates the magnitude of the vector which follows from the theorem: vec.magnitude() == math.sqrt(vec.x**2 + vec.y**2 + vec.z**2)

magnitude_squared()
returns the squared Euclidean magnitude of the vector.
magnitude_squared() -> float

calculates the magnitude of the vector which follows from the theorem: vec.magnitude_squared() == vec.x**2 + vec.y**2 + vec.z**2 This is faster than vec.magnitude() because it avoids the square root.

length()
returns the Euclidean length of the vector.
length() -> float

calculates the Euclidean length of the vector which follows from the Pythagorean theorem: vec.length() == math.sqrt(vec.x**2 + vec.y**2 + vec.z**2)

length_squared()
returns the squared Euclidean length of the vector.
length_squared() -> float

calculates the Euclidean length of the vector which follows from the Pythagorean theorem: vec.length_squared() == vec.x**2 + vec.y**2 + vec.z**2 This is faster than vec.length() because it avoids the square root.

normalize()
returns a vector with the same direction but length 1.
normalize() -> Vector3

Returns a new vector that has length == 1 and the same direction as self.

normalize_ip()
normalizes the vector in place so that its length is 1.
normalize_ip() -> None

Normalizes the vector so that it has length == 1. The direction of the vector is not changed.

is_normalized()
tests if the vector is normalized i.e. has length == 1.
is_normalized() -> Bool

Returns True if the vector has length == 1. Otherwise it returns False.

scale_to_length()
scales the vector to a given length.
scale_to_length(float) -> None

Scales the vector so that it has the given length. The direction of the vector is not changed. You can also scale to length 0. If the vector is the zero vector (i.e. has length 0 thus no direction) a ValueError is raised.

reflect()
returns a vector reflected of a given normal.
reflect(Vector3) -> Vector3

Returns a new vector that points in the direction as if self would bounce of a surface characterized by the given surface normal. The length of the new vector is the same as self's.

reflect_ip()
reflect the vector of a given normal in place.
reflect_ip(Vector3) -> None

Changes the direction of self as if it would have been reflected of a surface with the given surface normal.

distance_to()
calculates the Euclidean distance to a given vector.
distance_to(Vector3) -> float
distance_squared_to()
calculates the squared Euclidean distance to a given vector.
distance_squared_to(Vector3) -> float
lerp()
returns a linear interpolation to the given vector.
lerp(Vector3, float) -> Vector3

Returns a Vector which is a linear interpolation between self and the given Vector. The second parameter determines how far between self an other the result is going to be. It must be a value between 0 and 1 where 0 means self an 1 means other will be returned.

slerp()
returns a spherical interpolation to the given vector.
slerp(Vector3, float) -> Vector3

Calculates the spherical interpolation from self to the given Vector. The second argument - often called t - must be in the range [-1, 1]. It parametrizes where - in between the two vectors - the result should be. If a negative value is given the interpolation will not take the complement of the shortest path.

elementwise()
The next operation will be performed elementwise.
elementwise() -> VectorElementwiseProxy

Applies the following operation to each element of the vector.

rotate()
rotates a vector by a given angle in degrees.
rotate(angle, Vector3) -> Vector3

Returns a vector which has the same length as self but is rotated counterclockwise by the given angle in degrees around the given axis.

rotate_rad()
rotates a vector by a given angle in radians.
rotate_rad(angle, Vector3) -> Vector3

Returns a vector which has the same length as self but is rotated counterclockwise by the given angle in radians around the given axis.

New in pygame 2.0.

rotate_ip()
rotates the vector by a given angle in degrees in place.
rotate_ip(angle, Vector3) -> None

Rotates the vector counterclockwise around the given axis by the given angle in degrees. The length of the vector is not changed.

rotate_ip_rad()
rotates the vector by a given angle in radians in place.
rotate_ip_rad(angle, Vector3) -> None

Rotates the vector counterclockwise around the given axis by the given angle in radians. The length of the vector is not changed.

New in pygame 2.0.

rotate_x()
rotates a vector around the x-axis by the angle in degrees.
rotate_x(angle) -> Vector3

Returns a vector which has the same length as self but is rotated counterclockwise around the x-axis by the given angle in degrees.

rotate_x_rad()
rotates a vector around the x-axis by the angle in radians.
rotate_x_rad(angle) -> Vector3

Returns a vector which has the same length as self but is rotated counterclockwise around the x-axis by the given angle in radians.

New in pygame 2.0.

rotate_x_ip()
rotates the vector around the x-axis by the angle in degrees in place.
rotate_x_ip(angle) -> None

Rotates the vector counterclockwise around the x-axis by the given angle in degrees. The length of the vector is not changed.

rotate_x_ip_rad()
rotates the vector around the x-axis by the angle in radians in place.
rotate_x_ip_rad(angle) -> None

Rotates the vector counterclockwise around the x-axis by the given angle in radians. The length of the vector is not changed.

New in pygame 2.0.

rotate_y()
rotates a vector around the y-axis by the angle in degrees.
rotate_y(angle) -> Vector3

Returns a vector which has the same length as self but is rotated counterclockwise around the y-axis by the given angle in degrees.

rotate_y_rad()
rotates a vector around the y-axis by the angle in radians.
rotate_y_rad(angle) -> Vector3

Returns a vector which has the same length as self but is rotated counterclockwise around the y-axis by the given angle in radians.

New in pygame 2.0.

rotate_y_ip()
rotates the vector around the y-axis by the angle in degrees in place.
rotate_y_ip(angle) -> None

Rotates the vector counterclockwise around the y-axis by the given angle in degrees. The length of the vector is not changed.

rotate_y_ip_rad()
rotates the vector around the y-axis by the angle in radians in place.
rotate_y_ip_rad(angle) -> None

Rotates the vector counterclockwise around the y-axis by the given angle in radians. The length of the vector is not changed.

New in pygame 2.0.

rotate_z()
rotates a vector around the z-axis by the angle in degrees.
rotate_z(angle) -> Vector3

Returns a vector which has the same length as self but is rotated counterclockwise around the z-axis by the given angle in degrees.

rotate_z_rad()
rotates a vector around the z-axis by the angle in radians.
rotate_z_rad(angle) -> Vector3

Returns a vector which has the same length as self but is rotated counterclockwise around the z-axis by the given angle in radians.

New in pygame 2.0.

rotate_z_ip()
rotates the vector around the z-axis by the angle in degrees in place.
rotate_z_ip(angle) -> None

Rotates the vector counterclockwise around the z-axis by the given angle in degrees. The length of the vector is not changed.

rotate_z_ip_rad()
rotates the vector around the z-axis by the angle in radians in place.
rotate_z_ip_rad(angle) -> None

Rotates the vector counterclockwise around the z-axis by the given angle in radians. The length of the vector is not changed.

angle_to()
calculates the angle to a given vector in degrees.
angle_to(Vector3) -> float

Returns the angle between self and the given vector.

as_spherical()
returns a tuple with radial distance, inclination and azimuthal angle.
as_spherical() -> (r, theta, phi)

Returns a tuple (r, theta, phi) where r is the radial distance, theta is the inclination angle and phi is the azimuthal angle.

from_spherical()
Sets x, y and z from a spherical coordinates 3-tuple.
from_spherical((r, theta, phi)) -> None

Sets x, y and z from a tuple (r, theta, phi) where r is the radial distance, theta is the inclination angle and phi is the azimuthal angle.

update()
Sets the coordinates of the vector.
update() -> None
update(int) -> None
update(float) -> None
update(Vector3) -> None
update(x, y, z) -> None
update((x, y, z)) -> None

Sets coordinates x, y, and z in place.

New in pygame 1.9.5.

pygame.math.enable_swizzling()
globally enables swizzling for vectors.
enable_swizzling() -> None

DEPRECATED: Not needed anymore. Will be removed in a later version.

Enables swizzling for all vectors until disable_swizzling() is called. By default swizzling is disabled.

Lets you get or set multiple coordinates as one attribute, eg vec.xyz = 1, 2, 3.

pygame.math.disable_swizzling()
globally disables swizzling for vectors.
disable_swizzling() -> None

DEPRECATED: Not needed anymore. Will be removed in a later version.

Disables swizzling for all vectors until enable_swizzling() is called. By default swizzling is disabled.




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