- pygame module to control the display window and screen
pygame.display.init — Initialize the display module pygame.display.quit — Uninitialize the display module pygame.display.get_init — Returns True if the display module has been initialized pygame.display.set_mode — Initialize a window or screen for display pygame.display.get_surface — Get a reference to the currently set display surface pygame.display.flip — Update the full display Surface to the screen pygame.display.update — Update portions of the screen for software displays pygame.display.get_driver — Get the name of the pygame display backend pygame.display.Info — Create a video display information object pygame.display.get_wm_info — Get information about the current windowing system pygame.display.list_modes — Get list of available fullscreen modes pygame.display.mode_ok — Pick the best color depth for a display mode pygame.display.gl_get_attribute — Get the value for an OpenGL flag for the current display pygame.display.gl_set_attribute — Request an OpenGL display attribute for the display mode pygame.display.get_active — Returns True when the display is active on the display pygame.display.iconify — Iconify the display surface pygame.display.toggle_fullscreen — Switch between fullscreen and windowed displays pygame.display.set_gamma — Change the hardware gamma ramps pygame.display.set_gamma_ramp — Change the hardware gamma ramps with a custom lookup pygame.display.set_icon — Change the system image for the display window pygame.display.set_caption — Set the current window caption pygame.display.get_caption — Get the current window caption pygame.display.set_palette — Set the display color palette for indexed displays
This module offers control over the pygame display. Pygame has a single display Surface that is either contained in a window or runs full screen. Once you create the display you treat it as a regular Surface. Changes are not immediately visible onscreen; you must choose one of the two flipping functions to update the actual display.
The origin of the display, where x = 0 and y = 0, is the top left of the screen. Both axes increase positively towards the bottom right of the screen.
The pygame display can actually be initialized in one of several modes. By default, the display is a basic software driven framebuffer. You can request special modules like hardware acceleration and OpenGL support. These are controlled by flags passed to
Pygame can only have a single display active at any time. Creating a new one with
pygame.display.set_mode()will close the previous display. If precise control is needed over the pixel format or display resolutions, use the functions
pygame.display.Info()to query information about the display.
Once the display Surface is created, the functions from this module affect the single existing display. The Surface becomes invalid if the module is uninitialized. If a new display mode is set, the existing Surface will automatically switch to operate on the new display.
When the display mode is set, several events are placed on the pygame event queue.
pygame.QUITis sent when the user has requested the program to shut down. The window will receive
pygame.ACTIVEEVENTevents as the display gains and loses input focus. If the display is set with the
pygame.VIDEORESIZEevents will be sent when the user adjusts the window dimensions. Hardware displays that draw direct to the screen will get
pygame.VIDEOEXPOSEevents when portions of the window must be redrawn.
Some display environments have an option for automatically stretching all windows. When this option is enabled, this automatic stretching distorts the appearance of the pygame window. In the pygame examples directory, there is example code (prevent_display_stretching.py) which shows how to disable this automatic stretching of the pygame display on Microsoft Windows (Vista or newer required).
- Initialize the display moduleinit() -> None
Initializes the pygame display module. The display module cannot do anything until it is initialized. This is usually handled for you automatically when you call the higher level
Pygame will select from one of several internal display backends when it is initialized. The display mode will be chosen depending on the platform and permissions of current user. Before the display module is initialized the environment variable
SDL_VIDEODRIVERcan be set to control which backend is used. The systems with multiple choices are listed here.
Windows : windib, directx Unix : x11, dga, fbcon, directfb, ggi, vgl, svgalib, aalib
On some platforms it is possible to embed the pygame display into an already existing window. To do this, the environment variable
SDL_WINDOWIDmust be set to a string containing the window id or handle. The environment variable is checked when the pygame display is initialized. Be aware that there can be many strange side effects when running in an embedded display.
It is harmless to call this more than once, repeated calls have no effect.
- Uninitialize the display modulequit() -> None
This will shut down the entire display module. This means any active displays will be closed. This will also be handled automatically when the program exits.
It is harmless to call this more than once, repeated calls have no effect.
- Returns True if the display module has been initializedget_init() -> bool
Returns True if the
pygame.displaypygame module to control the display window and screen module is currently initialized.
- Initialize a window or screen for displayset_mode(resolution=(0,0), flags=0, depth=0) -> Surface
This function will create a display Surface. The arguments passed in are requests for a display type. The actual created display will be the best possible match supported by the system.
The resolution argument is a pair of numbers representing the width and height. The flags argument is a collection of additional options. The depth argument represents the number of bits to use for color.
The Surface that gets returned can be drawn to like a regular Surface but changes will eventually be seen on the monitor.
If no resolution is passed or is set to (0, 0) and pygame uses
SDLversion 1.2.10 or above, the created Surface will have the same size as the current screen resolution. If only the width or height are set to 0, the Surface will have the same width or height as the screen resolution. Using a
SDLversion prior to 1.2.10 will raise an exception.
It is usually best to not pass the depth argument. It will default to the best and fastest color depth for the system. If your game requires a specific color format you can control the depth with this argument. Pygame will emulate an unavailable color depth which can be slow.
When requesting fullscreen display modes, sometimes an exact match for the requested resolution cannot be made. In these situations pygame will select the closest compatible match. The returned surface will still always match the requested resolution.
The flags argument controls which type of display you want. There are several to choose from, and you can even combine multiple types using the bitwise or operator, (the pipe “|” character). If you pass 0 or no flags argument it will default to a software driven window. Here are the display flags you will want to choose from:
pygame.FULLSCREEN create a fullscreen display pygame.DOUBLEBUF recommended for HWSURFACE or OPENGL pygame.HWSURFACE hardware accelerated, only in FULLSCREEN pygame.OPENGL create an OpenGL-renderable display pygame.RESIZABLE display window should be sizeable pygame.NOFRAME display window will have no border or controls
# Open a window on the screen screen_width=700 screen_height=400 screen=pygame.display.set_mode([screen_width,screen_height])
- Get a reference to the currently set display surfaceget_surface() -> Surface
Return a reference to the currently set display Surface. If no display mode has been set this will return None.
- Update the full display Surface to the screenflip() -> None
This will update the contents of the entire display. If your display mode is using the flags
pygame.DOUBLEBUF, this will wait for a vertical retrace and swap the surfaces. If you are using a different type of display mode, it will simply update the entire contents of the surface.
When using an
pygame.OPENGLdisplay mode this will perform a gl buffer swap.
- Update portions of the screen for software displaysupdate(rectangle=None) -> Noneupdate(rectangle_list) -> None
This function is like an optimized version of
pygame.display.flip()for software displays. It allows only a portion of the screen to updated, instead of the entire area. If no argument is passed it updates the entire Surface area like
You can pass the function a single rectangle, or a sequence of rectangles. It is more efficient to pass many rectangles at once than to call update multiple times with single or a partial list of rectangles. If passing a sequence of rectangles it is safe to include None values in the list, which will be skipped.
This call cannot be used on
pygame.OPENGLdisplays and will generate an exception.
- Get the name of the pygame display backendget_driver() -> name
Pygame chooses one of many available display backends when it is initialized. This returns the internal name used for the display backend. This can be used to provide limited information about what display capabilities might be accelerated. See the
pygame.display.set_mode()to see some of the common options.
- Create a video display information objectInfo() -> VideoInfo
Creates a simple object containing several attributes to describe the current graphics environment. If this is called before
pygame.display.set_mode()some platforms can provide information about the default display mode. This can also be called after setting the display mode to verify specific display options were satisfied. The VidInfo object has several attributes:
hw: True if the display is hardware accelerated wm: True if windowed display modes can be used video_mem: The megabytes of video memory on the display. This is 0 if unknown bitsize: Number of bits used to store each pixel bytesize: Number of bytes used to store each pixel masks: Four values used to pack RGBA values into pixels shifts: Four values used to pack RGBA values into pixels losses: Four values used to pack RGBA values into pixels blit_hw: True if hardware Surface blitting is accelerated blit_hw_CC: True if hardware Surface colorkey blitting is accelerated blit_hw_A: True if hardware Surface pixel alpha blitting is accelerated blit_sw: True if software Surface blitting is accelerated blit_sw_CC: True if software Surface colorkey blitting is accelerated blit_sw_A: True if software Surface pixel alpha blitting is accelerated current_h, current_h: Width and height of the current video mode, or of the desktop mode if called before the display.set_mode is called. (current_h, current_w are available since SDL 1.2.10, and pygame 1.8.0) They are -1 on error, or if an old SDL is being used.
- Get information about the current windowing systemget_wm_info() -> dict
Creates a dictionary filled with string keys. The strings and values are arbitrarily created by the system. Some systems may have no information and an empty dictionary will be returned. Most platforms will return a “window” key with the value set to the system id for the current display.
New with pygame 1.7.1
- Get list of available fullscreen modeslist_modes(depth=0, flags=pygame.FULLSCREEN) -> list
This function returns a list of possible dimensions for a specified color depth. The return value will be an empty list if no display modes are available with the given arguments. A return value of -1 means that any requested resolution should work (this is likely the case for windowed modes). Mode sizes are sorted from biggest to smallest.
If depth is 0,
SDLwill choose the current/best color depth for the display. The flags defaults to
pygame.FULLSCREEN, but you may need to add additional flags for specific fullscreen modes.
- Pick the best color depth for a display modemode_ok(size, flags=0, depth=0) -> depth
This function uses the same arguments as
pygame.display.set_mode(). It is used to determine if a requested display mode is available. It will return 0 if the display mode cannot be set. Otherwise it will return a pixel depth that best matches the display asked for.
Usually the depth argument is not passed, but some platforms can support multiple display depths. If passed it will hint to which depth is a better match.
The most useful flags to pass will be
pygame.DOUBLEBUF, and maybe
pygame.FULLSCREEN. The function will return 0 if these display flags cannot be set.
- Get the value for an OpenGL flag for the current displaygl_get_attribute(flag) -> value
pygame.OPENGLflag, it is a good idea to check the value of any requested OpenGL attributes. See
pygame.display.gl_set_attribute()for a list of valid flags.
- Request an OpenGL display attribute for the display modegl_set_attribute(flag, value) -> None
pygame.OPENGLflag, Pygame automatically handles setting the OpenGL attributes like color and double-buffering. OpenGL offers several other attributes you may want control over. Pass one of these attributes as the flag, and its appropriate value. This must be called before
GL_ALPHA_SIZE, GL_DEPTH_SIZE, GL_STENCIL_SIZE, GL_ACCUM_RED_SIZE, GL_ACCUM_GREEN_SIZE, GL_ACCUM_BLUE_SIZE, GL_ACCUM_ALPHA_SIZE, GL_MULTISAMPLEBUFFERS, GL_MULTISAMPLESAMPLES, GL_STEREO
- Returns True when the display is active on the displayget_active() -> bool
pygame.display.set_mode()is called the display Surface will be visible on the screen. Most windowed displays can be hidden by the user. If the display Surface is hidden or iconified this will return False.
- Iconify the display surfaceiconify() -> bool
Request the window for the display surface be iconified or hidden. Not all systems and displays support an iconified display. The function will return True if successful.
When the display is iconified
pygame.display.get_active()will return False. The event queue should receive a
ACTIVEEVENTevent when the window has been iconified.
- Switch between fullscreen and windowed displaystoggle_fullscreen() -> bool
Switches the display window between windowed and fullscreen modes. This function only works under the UNIX X11 video driver. For most situations it is better to call
pygame.display.set_mode()with new display flags.
- Change the hardware gamma rampsset_gamma(red, green=None, blue=None) -> bool
Set the red, green, and blue gamma values on the display hardware. If the green and blue arguments are not passed, they will both be the same as red. Not all systems and hardware support gamma ramps, if the function succeeds it will return True.
A gamma value of 1.0 creates a linear color table. Lower values will darken the display and higher values will brighten.
- Change the hardware gamma ramps with a custom lookupset_gamma_ramp(red, green, blue) -> bool
Set the red, green, and blue gamma ramps with an explicit lookup table. Each argument should be sequence of 256 integers. The integers should range between 0 and 0xffff. Not all systems and hardware support gamma ramps, if the function succeeds it will return True.
- Change the system image for the display windowset_icon(Surface) -> None
Sets the runtime icon the system will use to represent the display window. All windows default to a simple pygame logo for the window icon.
You can pass any surface, but most systems want a smaller image around 32x32. The image can have colorkey transparency which will be passed to the system.
Some systems do not allow the window icon to change after it has been shown. This function can be called before
pygame.display.set_mode()to create the icon before the display mode is set.
- Set the current window captionset_caption(title, icontitle=None) -> None
If the display has a window title, this function will change the name on the window. Some systems support an alternate shorter title to be used for minimized displays.
- Get the current window captionget_caption() -> (title, icontitle)
Returns the title and icontitle for the display Surface. These will often be the same value.
- Set the display color palette for indexed displaysset_palette(palette=None) -> None
This will change the video display color palette for 8-bit displays. This does not change the palette for the actual display Surface, only the palette that is used to display the Surface. If no palette argument is passed, the system default palette will be restored. The palette is a sequence of